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穿搭MA-1飛行外套前一定要知道的事 | Things you should know about MA-1 Flight Jacket

天天氣開始轉涼,有沒有想過換上軍褸迎接秋冬呢? Winter is coming.    近年MA-1掀起熱潮,秋冬的街上不難見到這件經典的尼龍飛行外套。這件外套到底有什麼特別呢? The MA-1 had gotten quite a bit of attention in the past years and it is not difficult to spot them on the streets.  What’s about the fad?   Mr. S (left, in B-15) and Mr. M (right, in MA-1) 歷史上,MA-1初次登場於1950年代,取代了上一代的B-15飛行外套。當時飛行員正面對Jet Age (噴射機時代)所帶來的改變,飛得更高、更快的同時,舊有的外套設計已經無法再滿足和保護當時的飛行員­­ ─ MA-1便應運而生。MA-1首次使用了具彈性的領口,和過往B-15等外套的設計分別較大;用料上MA-1的尼龍亦非常光滑,既舒適既能做到一定程度的防水防風。 To talk about MA-1 we must first talk about its history.  The MA-1 made its first debut in the 1950s, replacing the B-15s.  As pilots face challenges in extreme environments due to the Jet Age, the old designs could no longer properly protect and serve the pilot operating in height and speed.  That’s why the MA-1 seemed a bit different than it’s predecessors, with its flexible collar instead of a fluffy one. The nylon used on the MA-1 is also noticeably smooth and silk-like, giving it unprecedented comfort and a certain degree of waterproof and windproof property.    自1963年開始,Alpha Industries就開始承辦軍方MA-1的生產,及後開始對世界各地的出口。直到今天,Alpha Industries仍然在生產著各式獨特的MA-1,從經典的軍綠款到如白色NASA配章款等的特別款式。新式的MA-1基於最原本的設計上作出了不少改善,如加入其他材料使袖口更耐用等,但最基本的外型還是沒有大改變的。有趣的是:最原祖的顏色並非軍綠色,而是當時美國空軍指定的暗夜藍,加上高可見度的橙色內層,萬一飛機墜毀時作求救用;直到韓戰越戰時期,為了在墜機事件發生時機師能在林木中更好地隱匿,軍綠色MA-1正式大量投入生產。 Ever since 1963, Alpha Industries had been responsible for manufacturing MA-1 bomber jackets, and started exported MA-1 all over the world.  From the timeless classic Sage Green[/URL] to special editions like the White MA-1 with NASA patches.  Ever since the MA-1’s debut, several practical changes have been made to it, like mixing new material into the flexible parts to make it more durable, but the overall appearance hadn’t been altered much.  On a side note, the classic sage green MA-1 which was designed to provide better camouflage in vegetation for pilots who fell from the sky, is actually not the original colour of it. The MA-1 was first produced in midnight blue, with a high-vis orange lining that could be used for easier identification of pilot in aircraft crashes.  The sage green MA-1s did not make the majority of MA-1 deployed in the forces until the Korean War and the Vietnam War.   經典的軍綠款 [URL=] 經典的全黑款 [URL=]  NASA配章款[URL=] Apollo  NASA配章款[URL=]    Majors John Revak (left, in L-2B) and Stan Goldstein (right, in MA-1), US Airforce   假如MA-1對你來說太厚,也可以考慮一下款式的飛行外套!相似於MA-1的外型,但比MA-1薄很多,設計原意也是為了在較熱的地區穿著。L-2B可能會較適合入秋時分,MA-1則較適合寒冬。此外,亦有MA-1 Slim, L-2B Scout等為平民市場而設的款式,每個人都能找到適合自己的款式和大小,不論哪款也好,Alpha Industries都有提供高質素而舒適的選擇。 If the MA-1 seemed a bit overkill for you, especially in the “Hong Kong Weather”, the L-2B could also serve you nicely, with a near-identical design to the MA-1, but way lighter, which is exactly the original purpose of the L-2B – to serve in warmer areas.  In addition, styles like the MA-1 Slim, the L-2B Scout that were made for the civilian market also provides an even wider range of choices for everyone looking for a nylon bomber jacket. Regardless, be it the MA-1 or the L-2B, Alpha Industries offer a wide variety of styles in the best quality. L-2B [URL=]L-2B[/URL]  MA-1 Slim-fit [URL=] L-2B Scout 偵察機師款 [URL=]     日本限定例子 Japan Limited   「機動戰士鋼彈」40周年紀念 [URL=]   Sovenir Tiger  [URL=]   ALPHA 1ST CAMO MA-1 [URL=]     Sovenir Eagle [URL=]  
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Top Gun x Cockpit USA 經典皮褸

    由湯告魯斯主演的壯志凌雲在33年前(1986年)的七月上映,其後不但成為湯告魯斯本人的成名作,更一度掀起了Ray-Ban黑超、電單車、皮褸等熱潮,甚至可稱得上是一種「浪漫」。     TOP GUN was first premiered 33 years ago (1986) in July.  Not only did it became what Tom Cruise is known for, it also made items like Ray-Bans, motorcycles and leather jackets into hot items.   壯志凌雲是以美國海軍戰鬥機武器學校為背景的電影 (英文簡稱TOPGUN,亦即片名由來)。由湯告魯斯所飾演的主角加入了TOPGUN受訓,搭檔在一次意外中喪生令他陷入低潮,後來成功克服,在任務中擊退敵機,終成為新一任TOPGUN教官。 TOP GUN is based on the United States Navy Strike Fighter Tactics Instructor program, better known as TOPGUN (Which inspired the film’s name).  The protagonist played by Tom Cruise enrolled in TOPGUN to become a pilot, yet was caught in a slump due to the death of a partner. He later overcame the slump and fought off enemy fighter jets and at last became a TOPGUN instructor.       久別33年,續集壯志凌雲:獨行俠終於宣佈在2020年的6月上映,並釋出了宣傳片和幕後花絮:     After 33 years, the sequel to TOP GUN, TOP GUN: MAVERICK is announced to premiere on 2020 June, with trailers and behind-the-scenes released: <iframe width="560" height="315" src="" frameborder="0" allow="accelerometer; autoplay; encrypted-media; gyroscope; picture-in-picture" allowfullscreen></iframe>       整整七分鐘的影片,已經帶出了壯志凌雲最吸引的一面。壯志凌雲:獨行俠在新科技的幫助下能無死角地捕獲機艙內外所有角度,同時堅持使用真實戰機作拍攝而非電腦合成畫面─就如訪問中提到「…重力拉在臉上造成的扭曲是演不出來的…」 A whole 7 minutes of trailer, showing everything TOP GUN was known and loved for.  With modern technologies, every angle in the cockpit is captured and everything will be filmed live instead of CGI – As the interview had mentioned: “…You can’t act that, the distortion in the face…”    
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CORDURA® 是什麼| What is CORDURA®?

What is CORDURA®?                                     To be short and simple, CORDURA® is a ridiculously tough performance fabric. 簡單來說,CORDURA®就是一種耐用到不合常理的高性能布料。   The most commonly used type of CORDURA® is their CORDURA® Classic Fabric in 330D, 500D, 700D or 1000D for backpacks, clothing and footwear.  They are proven to be highly resistant to abrasion and tear, with a certain degree of water repellency to keep you and your belongings nice and dry in mild rains.  As their name suggests, it’s durable.   最常見的CORDURA®應該非CORDURA® Classic Fabric﹝經典款﹞莫屬。330D、500D、700D、1000D等不同重量的布料都有在背包、衣物和鞋上使用。它們有著極高的磨損和撕裂抗性,還有一定的疏水力,在雨中保護你和你的物品。 Most consumers will be satisfied with 500D products in an urban environment where slight but not extreme tears and wears do happen on their fabrics.  1000D products are twice as heavy as 500D products, that’s why some manufacturers sacrifice some durability for comfort, but 1000D products are near unbreakable and is perfect for military or outdoor applications, where a hole in your backpack means big trouble. 因為500D已經具有足夠的能力對抗在都市人日常生活中會面對的磨損,大部份的使用者都會對500D的產品感到滿意。由於1000D的布料重量是500D的兩倍,有不少產品都以少許的耐用度換取較高的舒適度。當然1000D布料也有它們的用武之地,在軍事用或戶外用時,背包破了一個洞的後果比日常用嚴重得多,堅不可摧的1000D CORDURA®便是首選。     One thing to note is that CORDURA® is a brand, which kept on developing new types of performance fabrics like CORDURA® Combat Wool™ Fabric, CORDURA® Denim, CORDURA® TRUELOCK Fiber and many more newly developed fabrics.  It can be too much of a feast to digest, but most CORDRA® used in popular products are their most proven and trusty CORDURA® Classic Fabric and you can be assured, if you see the CORDURA® tag on a product, you can trust it. 要留意的是CORDURA®本身是一個仍然在推出不同新布料的品牌,像是CORDURA® Combat Wool™ Fabric﹝戰鬥羊毛﹞, CORDURA® Denim﹝牛仔布﹞, CORDURA® TRUELOCK Fiber﹝防失色﹞等不同新式布料。這刻的你或許會有些目不暇給,但你絕對能相信使用CORDURA®布料的產品。  

品牌介紹 | Brand Introduction – 5.11 Tactical

  5.11 Tactical is a rather reputable brand that is heard by many, but 5.11 started out as a mere clothing line of a boot and clothing company. 今天的5.11是一個相當有名的品牌,但其實5.11一開始只是某家服裝公司的附屬系列。   In the 1960s, California, a mountain climber Royal Robbins, as he was about to reach the top of a climb, he noticed that his trousers are very well designed for climbing, which then inspired him to start a clothing line specializing in clothing that came with better functionality and durability in the name of “5.11”, which came from the difficulty rating for a rock climbing trail developed by Robbins. 在1960年代的加州,有位叫Royal Robbins的登山愛好者在某次登山時發現自己所穿的長褲並不是很適合爬山用,他便開始自行設計更耐用,有更多功能的衣著,並以「5.11」之名推出市場─「5.11」這個名字源於Robbins創立的登山路徑,而5.11正是當地給予這條路徑的難度評分—極難。   By Tom Frost | Tom Frost攝 2000s, the company was sold to Dan Costa and 5.11 became an individual company, renaming itself to “5.11 Tactical”.  5.11 Tactical pants soon gained popularity in the FBI Academy in Virginia, which then later leads to a market expansion of their products among law enforcement units. 直到2000年代左右,Robbins出售了5.11予Dan Costa, 並成為了一家獨立的公司「5.11 Tactical」。其中5.11所出產的戰術褲在維吉尼亞州的FBI學員間流行起來,導致了後來5.11在執法單位間的市場擴張出現。 From 5.11 official website | 取自5.11官方網站 To this day, 5.11 Tactical offers a wide variety of tactical and outdoor commodities, from shirts and pants, to glasses, gloves and footwear with great comfort and quality that satisfies its users, from law enforcements to outdoor enthusiasts and casual everyday wearers. 直到今天,5.11提供了林林總總樣式的戰術及戶外產品,不論是衫褲、眼鏡、手套或是鞋具都有相當高的質素和功能性以滿足使用者。     5.11 – Always be ready.  

警務軍事化在現代社會的兩難 | The Paradox of Police Militarization

The Paradox of Police Militarization 警務軍事化在現代社會的兩難   St. Louis County Police (From Johns Hopkins Magazine/ Bret McCabe) 聖路易斯警察 (取自Johns Hopkins Magazine / Bret McCabe)   Militarized police is often associated with “paramilitary”, though militarized police is considered paramilitary, paramilitary is a much boarder term and includes other unarmed disciplined units and services.  An example would be the Hong Kong Government Flying Service or the Hong Kong Fire Department. 軍警常被與「準軍事組織」劃上等號,雖然軍警是準軍事組織的一種,準軍事組織包括了許多其他非武裝紀律部隊,比方說政府飛行服務隊、香港消防處等第一眼不會與「軍事」一詞的組織。   Militarized police strictly refers to police forces with equipment and tactics on par with the military, including stun grenades, lethal and less-lethal firearms and sometimes tear gas.   Police officers given with military grade equipment and trainings are often tasked to tackle violent confrontations with criminals, like armed drug dealers or terrorists. Depending on the situation, sometimes riot police are also given said equipment to trainings to handle protests, demonstrations or riots. 軍警指具有軍事化裝備、訓練和戰術的警力,其武裝通常有震撼彈、高低致命程度的槍械及彈藥和催淚彈等。具有軍事化訓練和裝備的警察通常負責對應和武裝罪犯如毒販或恐怖份子的高武力對抗。 Two West German policemen in the Munich Massacre (AP) 慕尼黑慘案中的兩名西德警員 (AP)   In 4th Generation Warfare, tactics like terrorism rose and it became necessary for some police to become militarized to fight a war without borders and frontlines.  One of the most recognized, renowned elite tactical unit, GSG9, of the German Federal Police, was established after the Munich Massacre, which the German police failed to tackle due to their lack of training and equipment in anti-terrorism situations, resulting in 17 casualties.  Truly a heartbreaking lesson that taught people the importance to the militarization of police. 在第四世代戰爭中,恐怖主義的興起令軍警的存在前所未有的重要,以應對沒有前線、沒有邊境的戰爭。著名的精英反恐特種部隊GSG9,即德國聯邦警察第九邊防大隊,是在1972年的慕尼黑慘案後成立的。當時的德國警察沒有應對恐怖份子的訓練和裝備,令事件以17人死亡作結,當中包括多名猶太人運動精英。慕尼黑慘案的沉重教訓令軍警成為許多國家不可缺少的重要武裝力量。 A black person surrendering to armed police (AP / Jeff Roberson)   Though police are militarized to better maintain order and to protect the community, some concern that the drift towards militarization will damage the relationship between the police and the community they are supposed to protect.  Karl Bickel, an senior policy analyst of the Office of Community Oriented Policing Services in the US, wrote that military-like trainings, deep coloured battle dress worn and a “warrior” mindset instead of a “protector” mindset, could alienate them from their community, and promotes a dominating, “us vs them” approach of law enforcement.  According to the Reuters in 2010, a group of police raided 40 barber shops in Orlando, Florida, and arrested almost three dozens of people of colour without announcement or warrants. The police participated in the raids drew the guns against the innocent barbers and brought along police dogs, and some wore masks to hide their identity. 將警察軍事化的原意的確是為了能更有效地保障國民的生命和財產,但亦有聲音認為這趨勢對警民關係弊大於利。美國社區警政署資深政策分析師Karl Bickel認為軍事式訓練、深色戰鬥服和警員所抱「戰士」而非「衛士」的心態會令警方和他們所保護的社區關係疏離,以及強烈的「不是你死就是我活」的二元思考模式。據路透社報導,在2010年的美國佛羅里達州奧蘭多市,一群警員在沒有搜查令,沒有事前通知的情況下強行攻進40間理髮店,無理逮捕逾三十名有色人種。其實,相關警員曾以槍械指嚇,又有戴上面罩,令其身份難以識辨。   What do you think?  It is important for the police to have better weapons and trainings to tackle serious criminal offenses? Or is it more important to build trust between the police and the community through community policing? Or is there a way to achieve the best of both worlds? 你是怎麼想的呢?警方為對抗嚴重罪案故然需要更高強度的訓練和裝備,但是不是代表要犠牲警民間的良好關係?還是有著更兩全其美的方案呢?   延伸閱讀;香港社區警政—香港警察學院 Extensive reading: Community Policing in Hong Kong by Hong Kong Police College  

迷彩是甚麼? | What is camouflage?

  By Lukas Kaffer – Great Male Leopard in South Afrika | 取自Lukas Kaffer ─ 南非雄豹   Camouflage is a brilliant example of what humans can adapt from the animal kingdom.  Camouflages are used by animals either to blend into their surroundings, or to mimic something else to increase their chances of survival.  For example, leopards have disruptive patterns on their body to blend into the tall grass in the wild, and butterflies have patterns on their wings to deter predators by pretending to be bigger and stronger than what they are.   常說人類能從動物王國學到不少的技能,迷彩技術正正是其中之一。動物為了求生,有不少物種都能利用迷彩融入環境之中,或是偽裝成其他東西。比方說豹會利用身上的點點藏身於草原中,又或者是蝴蝶展開雙翅嚇退獵食者。   The earliest adaptations of camouflage by humans could be found way back in ancient Greek, where some books recorded that Mediterranean pirates could paint their ships with grey for concealment.  However, the formal adaptation and invention of military camouflage patterns only came in World War 1, where the French first formed a camouflage corps known as the “camoufleurs” – the pioneers of modern military camouflage.  Camouflage in WW1 mainly took place on vehicles and hardware like firearms and helmets, rather than on clothes. Traces of cubism art could also be seen as early camouflage patterns did take a lot of inspiration from them as cubism art breaks down reality into patterns that are difficult for eyes to distinguish – perfect for disruptive camouflages.   偽裝色迷彩的應用早就在古希臘有所記載。有說,當時的海盜能把船塗上灰色以匿藏己蹤。儘管如此,迷彩圖案最早在戰爭中有系統的應用是發生在第一次世界大戰的法國。當時的法國正值立體主義藝術的洗禮—立體主義主張把人眼所見的事物打破再重新組織,畫出似虛似實的作品。這種風格被應用到了當時的迷彩圖案中,法國先是組織「Camoufleurs」專門負責迷彩相關事務,英德等各國亦緊隨其後。當時的迷彩主要應用在頭盔、槍械、坦克等硬件,在衣料上的應用未有普及。                                                                 Albert Gleizes – L’Homme au Balcon (Man on a Balcony), 1912 | Albert Gleizes ─ 陽台上的男人,1912年     Taken from the Imperial War Museum – Australian war loan propaganda, 1918 | 取自帝國戰爭博物館 ─ 澳洲的戰爭債券宣傳品,1918年   Taken from the Imperial War Museum – WW1 German Stahlhelm with a visible dent | 取自帝國戰爭博物館 ─ 一戰的德軍頭盔,有明顯的凹痕   In modern militaries, disruptive camouflages that blurs the borders of objects are widely used for the same reason that animals used them – to increase their chances of survival.  Military forces, companies and scientists have created many patterns of camouflage and countless variations of colour combination. Nowadays, digital patterns with different colour schemes are widely used around the world, such as the American ACU, Canadian CADPAT and the Chinese Type 07 Camouflage.   現代軍隊廣泛地應用了形形色色的干擾性迷彩,有效地將物件的邊界抹去而達到匿藏的效果。各國各地的軍隊、公司和科學家都發明了許多的迷彩圖案以及無數的色彩配搭,以滿足不同環境所需。現今較受歡迎的迷彩樣式之一是數位迷彩,不論是美軍的ACU、加軍的CADPAT還是解放軍的07式通用迷彩,都是基於數位迷彩樣式的。   From the Internet – Type 07 Camouflauge | 取自網絡 – 07式軍服     By Sue Harden – Soldier in ACU | 取自哈登 – 穿著ACU的軍人   Besides its combat oriented characteristics, the unique, sometimes eye catching aesthetics of camouflage clothing are also preferred by many as a choice of casual wear.  Next time, we will be digging deeper into the stories behind different patterns.   迷彩原來的目的是為了在戰鬥中不被人輕易發現,但亦有不少人喜歡在日常穿著迷彩服,喜歡迷彩服的獨特。在未來的文章中,我們會更深入的探索各種迷彩的有趣故事。     ——————————————————————————————————————————————————— By original by Lukas Kaffer (Super.lukas); crops and changes by JD – Image:Great male Leopard in South Afrika.JPG, CC BY-SA 3.0, By Albert Gleizes,, PD-US, Imperial War Museum, By Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff – Flickr: 110712-N-TT977-077, pubic domain,  

FAST戰術頭盔簡介| Brief introduction to FAST helmets

By Marc Cooper – LAPD SWAT Exercise, Marc Cooper攝,洛杉磯警察局SWAT練習 FAST戰術頭盔這名字早在2005年便為Ops-Core公司所提出,並首次面世於2009年的美國SHOT SHOW戶外用品展上。 The term FAST(Future Assault Shell Technology) helmet was first introduced by Ops-Core, a manufacturing company in 2005.  The helmet made its first public debut in SHOT SHOW 2009. By Blog Strike-Hold!, taken on SHOT SHOW 2009, 取自Strike-Hold!網誌,攝於SHOT SHOW戶外用品展2009 多數的FAST戰術頭盔都主打犧牲些許的防彈性能以換取舒適度及更模組化的設計,為軍人提供一個傳統防彈鋼盔外的選擇。Ops-Core亦有製造非防彈而更輕盈的碳纖製FAST頭盔。 Though mid cut variations are available, FAST helmets often come in a high cut profile.  These helmets sacrifice some ballistic protection in favour of comfort and modularity, providing an alternative for operators on the field.  FAST helmets made by Ops-Core also offer non-ballistic versions of the helmet with material like carbon fiber for extra weight reduction. FAST戰術頭盔的高模組性主要來自頭盔上的ARC導軌及VAS蓋板。ARC能裝上透面板、側板等,而VAS則能裝上夜視鏡、運動鏡頭如GoPro等。極高的模組性及舒適度讓FAST戰術頭盔不止在軍事用途上受歡迎,同時亦受戶外運動外好者歡迎。 The modularity of FAST helmets mainly comes from ARC(Accessory Rail Connector) rails and VAS shrouds mounted on top of them.  ARC rails allow the integration of face shields, side armour, headlights, and the VAS shroud for night vision goggles, action camera like GoPros etc.. The modularity and comfort of FAST helmets made it popular not just among military operators, but to outdoor enthusiasts alike. By Ops-Core, official webpage, Ops-Core官方網站上的示意圖 By Defense Review, a FAST helmet mounted with an action camera and a flashlight,取自Defense Review網誌,圖中為裝上鏡頭及光燈的FAST頭盔   ——————————————————-, CC0

背包上一條條的織帶有何功用? | What is the function of the strip of webbing in the backpack?

  背包設計中,常常會見到一條條粗厚的織帶,大部份人的第一個想法就是認為這是裝飾。但事實上,這些條狀織帶是一種重要的軍事特徵。在90年代後期,美軍採用了一種名為"MOLLE"的個人裝備攜行系統制式。這是一種現代裝備模塊化的系統,全寫叫 Modular Lightweight Load-carrying Equipment.讓士兵可以依據任務來變更隨行裝備,提供更彈性的裝備組合。一般會配合戰術背心﹑腰帶及可佩掛式組件 (例如彈匣袋﹑急救包或戰術袋等)。由於MOLLE系統十分方便,掛載自由度很高,很快就在全球廣範地流行起來,並取代了絕大多數其他模塊化軍用裝具系統,成為軍事部隊的主流裝備系統。 In the design of backpacks, a thick strip of webbing is often seen. The first thought of most people is that this is a decoration. But in fact, these strips are an important military feature. In the late 1990s, the US military adopted a personal equipment carrying system called "MOLLE". This is a modular system with modern equipment, called Modular Lightweight Load-carrying Equipment. It allows soldiers to change their accompanying equipment according to their tasks and provide the most flexible equipment combination. It is usually used with tactical vests, belts and detachable components (such as magazine bags, first aid bags or tactical bags). Because the MOLLE system is very convenient and flexible, and it has quickly become popular in the world and has replaced most other modular military equipment systems and become the mainstream equipment system of military units. 傳統MOLLE系統是最初的設計也是最多人使用的設計,其原理是把配有強硬尼龍組條的附件裝備模組交替穿過掛載面或配有織帶的主裝備上,最後按上按扣,令裝置緊緊地結合。 The traditional MOLLE system is the original design and the most popular design. The principle is to alternate the accessory equipment module with the rigid nylon strips through the mounting surface or the main equipment with the webbing, and finally press the snap button. The device is tightly coupled.    

好戲分享: Born on the forth of July

《Born on the Fourth of July 七月四日誕生》是一部1989年上映,根據美國越戰退伍老兵Ron Kovic 的同名暢銷自傳體小說改編的美國戰爭電影。 劇情講述Ron父親曾經參加兩次世界大戰,是一名優秀的軍人羅尼繼承了父親的事業和志向,小時就夢想成為一個頂天立地的男子漢,戰死沙場、馬革裹屍,佐另一方面,他是基督徒,而且內心善良淳樸,充滿愛心。一天,全家聚集在電視前聆聽當時美國總統甘迺迪的演講,號召美國人團結起來抵制共產主義,這番演講為Ron 影響十分大。高中時候,Ron選擇參加美國海軍陸戰隊,最後他奉命參加越南戰爭,在越南戰爭中,他親眼目睹戰爭的殘酷和無情,美軍和越軍為了勝利,不擇手段,各使毒手,越軍經常使用人肉炸彈,一人換來幾十條美軍的生命;而美軍則對越軍進行大屠殺來殺害敵人。在一次戰事中,Ron 誤殺了自己的戰友Wilson,後來自己也被越軍打垮,雙腿癱瘓,經過全力搶救,留下了他的生命,但是他從此終身坐在輪椅上。回到家鄉的Ron 一直為自己在戰爭中的行為困擾不已,經常出現幻覺,此時此刻,美國國內瀰漫著反戰的各種氣氛,學校停課、人民遊行示威,羅尼也加入了反戰遊行的隊伍中,成為了一個反戰宣傳者。 《七月四日誕生》上映後獲得了巨大的成功,在第62屆奧斯卡金像獎角逐中獲得了包括最佳影片獎在內的8項提名,最後獲得了導演和剪輯兩座獎。影片在商業和專業評論上更為成功,全球票房為1.61億美元。   Source:  Wikipedia  
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美軍海豹部隊應如何打破指揮鏈? How the U.S. Navy SEAL break the chain of command?

在職場上,你或會曾經發現你的上級犯了一些嚴重的錯誤,而你卻不知如何處理或上諫? 美國海軍海豹部隊退伍的指揮官 Jocko Willink的建議,可能會為你提供一些有用的建議。為了保持整體有效的管治和軍紀,軍隊會設立層層式的指揮鏈,而部隊須絕對順從其長官的指令。不過,長官亦是凡人,有時或會發出有一些致命的錯誤指令,令整體軍隊陷於不利之中。在一層一層的分階管理中,軍人又如何直接越過其直屬上司,向更高層的長官報告進而解決問題呢? Jocko 認為「越級上諫」是非常非常嚴重的問題,它不但打破了指揮鏈和信任,更會破壞你一直以來建立的關係,造成無法彌補的傷害。他認為,若長官作出了一些「違法或不道德」的行為或決定,「越級上諫」應是你最後的手段。因此,他建議你應先自信及誠懇地與你的長官直接對話,以一種非威脅的方式提出意見,並強調「我們」而非「我」。至關重要的是,你不要讓自己成為一個能夠超越長官的人。如果對話不起作用,那麼你就有「責任」越過你的長官並與他們的上級交談了。 Jocko補充: 照著規矩來做事絕對是你最重要的原則。它可以保護你免於任何的譴責,畢竟規定就是這樣。在長官破壞了規矩而造成問題時,你既可以站在中立的角度給予建議,亦能避免ㄧ些不必要的麻煩。   In the workplace, you may have found that your superior has made some serious mistakes, but you do not know how to deal with or report. Jocko Willink, the fromer commander of the US Navy's SEAL, may provide you some useful advices. In order to maintain overall effective governance and discipline, the military will establish a layered chain of command, and the troops must absolutely obey the command of their officers. However, the sergeant is also a mortal and therefore he may make some disastrous mistakes that put the whole army in a disadvantage. In the hierarchical management system, how can a soldier directly overstep their sergeant and report the issue to the higher-ranking commanders? Jocko believes that "overstepping" is a very, very serious problem. It will not only break the chain of command and trust, but will also damage the relationship you have been building, causing irreparable harm. He believes that if the sergeant has made some "illegal or unethical" behaviors or decisions, "the overstepped reporting" should be your last resort. Therefore, he suggests that you should first talk to your sergeant with confidence and sincerity, present your opinions in a non-threatening manner and emphasize "we" rather than "me". It is vital that you don't make yourself a person who can go beyond the sergeant. If the conversation doesn't work, then you have the responsibility of "the overstepped reporting". Jocko added: doing things according to the rules is definitely your most important principle. It can prevent you from any condemnation since the rules are like this. When the sergeant breaks the rules and causes problems, you can give advice from a neutral perspective and avoid unnecessary troubles.