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迷彩是甚麼? | What is camouflage?

  By Lukas Kaffer – Great Male Leopard in South Afrika | 取自Lukas Kaffer ─ 南非雄豹   Camouflage is a brilliant example of what humans can adapt from the animal kingdom.  Camouflages are used by animals either to blend into their surroundings, or to mimic something else to increase their chances of survival.  For example, leopards have disruptive patterns on their body to blend into the tall grass in the wild, and butterflies have patterns on their wings to deter predators by pretending to be bigger and stronger than what they are.   常說人類能從動物王國學到不少的技能,迷彩技術正正是其中之一。動物為了求生,有不少物種都能利用迷彩融入環境之中,或是偽裝成其他東西。比方說豹會利用身上的點點藏身於草原中,又或者是蝴蝶展開雙翅嚇退獵食者。   The earliest adaptations of camouflage by humans could be found way back in ancient Greek, where some books recorded that Mediterranean pirates could paint their ships with grey for concealment.  However, the formal adaptation and invention of military camouflage patterns only came in World War 1, where the French first formed a camouflage corps known as the “camoufleurs” – the pioneers of modern military camouflage.  Camouflage in WW1 mainly took place on vehicles and hardware like firearms and helmets, rather than on clothes. Traces of cubism art could also be seen as early camouflage patterns did take a lot of inspiration from them as cubism art breaks down reality into patterns that are difficult for eyes to distinguish – perfect for disruptive camouflages.   偽裝色迷彩的應用早就在古希臘有所記載。有說,當時的海盜能把船塗上灰色以匿藏己蹤。儘管如此,迷彩圖案最早在戰爭中有系統的應用是發生在第一次世界大戰的法國。當時的法國正值立體主義藝術的洗禮—立體主義主張把人眼所見的事物打破再重新組織,畫出似虛似實的作品。這種風格被應用到了當時的迷彩圖案中,法國先是組織「Camoufleurs」專門負責迷彩相關事務,英德等各國亦緊隨其後。當時的迷彩主要應用在頭盔、槍械、坦克等硬件,在衣料上的應用未有普及。                                                                 Albert Gleizes – L’Homme au Balcon (Man on a Balcony), 1912 | Albert Gleizes ─ 陽台上的男人,1912年     Taken from the Imperial War Museum – Australian war loan propaganda, 1918 | 取自帝國戰爭博物館 ─ 澳洲的戰爭債券宣傳品,1918年   Taken from the Imperial War Museum – WW1 German Stahlhelm with a visible dent | 取自帝國戰爭博物館 ─ 一戰的德軍頭盔,有明顯的凹痕   In modern militaries, disruptive camouflages that blurs the borders of objects are widely used for the same reason that animals used them – to increase their chances of survival.  Military forces, companies and scientists have created many patterns of camouflage and countless variations of colour combination. Nowadays, digital patterns with different colour schemes are widely used around the world, such as the American ACU, Canadian CADPAT and the Chinese Type 07 Camouflage.   現代軍隊廣泛地應用了形形色色的干擾性迷彩,有效地將物件的邊界抹去而達到匿藏的效果。各國各地的軍隊、公司和科學家都發明了許多的迷彩圖案以及無數的色彩配搭,以滿足不同環境所需。現今較受歡迎的迷彩樣式之一是數位迷彩,不論是美軍的ACU、加軍的CADPAT還是解放軍的07式通用迷彩,都是基於數位迷彩樣式的。   From the Internet – Type 07 Camouflauge | 取自網絡 – 07式軍服     By Sue Harden – Soldier in ACU | 取自哈登 – 穿著ACU的軍人   Besides its combat oriented characteristics, the unique, sometimes eye catching aesthetics of camouflage clothing are also preferred by many as a choice of casual wear.  Next time, we will be digging deeper into the stories behind different patterns.   迷彩原來的目的是為了在戰鬥中不被人輕易發現,但亦有不少人喜歡在日常穿著迷彩服,喜歡迷彩服的獨特。在未來的文章中,我們會更深入的探索各種迷彩的有趣故事。     ——————————————————————————————————————————————————— By original by Lukas Kaffer (Super.lukas); crops and changes by JD – Image:Great male Leopard in South Afrika.JPG, CC BY-SA 3.0, By Albert Gleizes,, PD-US, Imperial War Museum, By Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff – Flickr: 110712-N-TT977-077, pubic domain,  

FAST戰術頭盔簡介| Brief introduction to FAST helmets

By Marc Cooper – LAPD SWAT Exercise, Marc Cooper攝,洛杉磯警察局SWAT練習 FAST戰術頭盔這名字早在2005年便為Ops-Core公司所提出,並首次面世於2009年的美國SHOT SHOW戶外用品展上。 The term FAST(Future Assault Shell Technology) helmet was first introduced by Ops-Core, a manufacturing company in 2005.  The helmet made its first public debut in SHOT SHOW 2009. By Blog Strike-Hold!, taken on SHOT SHOW 2009, 取自Strike-Hold!網誌,攝於SHOT SHOW戶外用品展2009 多數的FAST戰術頭盔都主打犧牲些許的防彈性能以換取舒適度及更模組化的設計,為軍人提供一個傳統防彈鋼盔外的選擇。Ops-Core亦有製造非防彈而更輕盈的碳纖製FAST頭盔。 Though mid cut variations are available, FAST helmets often come in a high cut profile.  These helmets sacrifice some ballistic protection in favour of comfort and modularity, providing an alternative for operators on the field.  FAST helmets made by Ops-Core also offer non-ballistic versions of the helmet with material like carbon fiber for extra weight reduction. FAST戰術頭盔的高模組性主要來自頭盔上的ARC導軌及VAS蓋板。ARC能裝上透面板、側板等,而VAS則能裝上夜視鏡、運動鏡頭如GoPro等。極高的模組性及舒適度讓FAST戰術頭盔不止在軍事用途上受歡迎,同時亦受戶外運動外好者歡迎。 The modularity of FAST helmets mainly comes from ARC(Accessory Rail Connector) rails and VAS shrouds mounted on top of them.  ARC rails allow the integration of face shields, side armour, headlights, and the VAS shroud for night vision goggles, action camera like GoPros etc.. The modularity and comfort of FAST helmets made it popular not just among military operators, but to outdoor enthusiasts alike. By Ops-Core, official webpage, Ops-Core官方網站上的示意圖 By Defense Review, a FAST helmet mounted with an action camera and a flashlight,取自Defense Review網誌,圖中為裝上鏡頭及光燈的FAST頭盔   ——————————————————-, CC0

背包上一條條的織帶有何功用? | What is the function of the strip of webbing in the backpack?

  背包設計中,常常會見到一條條粗厚的織帶,大部份人的第一個想法就是認為這是裝飾。但事實上,這些條狀織帶是一種重要的軍事特徵。在90年代後期,美軍採用了一種名為"MOLLE"的個人裝備攜行系統制式。這是一種現代裝備模塊化的系統,全寫叫 Modular Lightweight Load-carrying Equipment.讓士兵可以依據任務來變更隨行裝備,提供更彈性的裝備組合。一般會配合戰術背心﹑腰帶及可佩掛式組件 (例如彈匣袋﹑急救包或戰術袋等)。由於MOLLE系統十分方便,掛載自由度很高,很快就在全球廣範地流行起來,並取代了絕大多數其他模塊化軍用裝具系統,成為軍事部隊的主流裝備系統。 In the design of backpacks, a thick strip of webbing is often seen. The first thought of most people is that this is a decoration. But in fact, these strips are an important military feature. In the late 1990s, the US military adopted a personal equipment carrying system called "MOLLE". This is a modular system with modern equipment, called Modular Lightweight Load-carrying Equipment. It allows soldiers to change their accompanying equipment according to their tasks and provide the most flexible equipment combination. It is usually used with tactical vests, belts and detachable components (such as magazine bags, first aid bags or tactical bags). Because the MOLLE system is very convenient and flexible, and it has quickly become popular in the world and has replaced most other modular military equipment systems and become the mainstream equipment system of military units. 傳統MOLLE系統是最初的設計也是最多人使用的設計,其原理是把配有強硬尼龍組條的附件裝備模組交替穿過掛載面或配有織帶的主裝備上,最後按上按扣,令裝置緊緊地結合。 The traditional MOLLE system is the original design and the most popular design. The principle is to alternate the accessory equipment module with the rigid nylon strips through the mounting surface or the main equipment with the webbing, and finally press the snap button. The device is tightly coupled.    

好戲分享: Born on the forth of July

《Born on the Fourth of July 七月四日誕生》是一部1989年上映,根據美國越戰退伍老兵Ron Kovic 的同名暢銷自傳體小說改編的美國戰爭電影。 劇情講述Ron父親曾經參加兩次世界大戰,是一名優秀的軍人羅尼繼承了父親的事業和志向,小時就夢想成為一個頂天立地的男子漢,戰死沙場、馬革裹屍,佐另一方面,他是基督徒,而且內心善良淳樸,充滿愛心。一天,全家聚集在電視前聆聽當時美國總統甘迺迪的演講,號召美國人團結起來抵制共產主義,這番演講為Ron 影響十分大。高中時候,Ron選擇參加美國海軍陸戰隊,最後他奉命參加越南戰爭,在越南戰爭中,他親眼目睹戰爭的殘酷和無情,美軍和越軍為了勝利,不擇手段,各使毒手,越軍經常使用人肉炸彈,一人換來幾十條美軍的生命;而美軍則對越軍進行大屠殺來殺害敵人。在一次戰事中,Ron 誤殺了自己的戰友Wilson,後來自己也被越軍打垮,雙腿癱瘓,經過全力搶救,留下了他的生命,但是他從此終身坐在輪椅上。回到家鄉的Ron 一直為自己在戰爭中的行為困擾不已,經常出現幻覺,此時此刻,美國國內瀰漫著反戰的各種氣氛,學校停課、人民遊行示威,羅尼也加入了反戰遊行的隊伍中,成為了一個反戰宣傳者。 《七月四日誕生》上映後獲得了巨大的成功,在第62屆奧斯卡金像獎角逐中獲得了包括最佳影片獎在內的8項提名,最後獲得了導演和剪輯兩座獎。影片在商業和專業評論上更為成功,全球票房為1.61億美元。   Source:  Wikipedia  
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美軍海豹部隊應如何打破指揮鏈? How the U.S. Navy SEAL break the chain of command?

在職場上,你或會曾經發現你的上級犯了一些嚴重的錯誤,而你卻不知如何處理或上諫? 美國海軍海豹部隊退伍的指揮官 Jocko Willink的建議,可能會為你提供一些有用的建議。為了保持整體有效的管治和軍紀,軍隊會設立層層式的指揮鏈,而部隊須絕對順從其長官的指令。不過,長官亦是凡人,有時或會發出有一些致命的錯誤指令,令整體軍隊陷於不利之中。在一層一層的分階管理中,軍人又如何直接越過其直屬上司,向更高層的長官報告進而解決問題呢? Jocko 認為「越級上諫」是非常非常嚴重的問題,它不但打破了指揮鏈和信任,更會破壞你一直以來建立的關係,造成無法彌補的傷害。他認為,若長官作出了一些「違法或不道德」的行為或決定,「越級上諫」應是你最後的手段。因此,他建議你應先自信及誠懇地與你的長官直接對話,以一種非威脅的方式提出意見,並強調「我們」而非「我」。至關重要的是,你不要讓自己成為一個能夠超越長官的人。如果對話不起作用,那麼你就有「責任」越過你的長官並與他們的上級交談了。 Jocko補充: 照著規矩來做事絕對是你最重要的原則。它可以保護你免於任何的譴責,畢竟規定就是這樣。在長官破壞了規矩而造成問題時,你既可以站在中立的角度給予建議,亦能避免ㄧ些不必要的麻煩。   In the workplace, you may have found that your superior has made some serious mistakes, but you do not know how to deal with or report. Jocko Willink, the fromer commander of the US Navy's SEAL, may provide you some useful advices. In order to maintain overall effective governance and discipline, the military will establish a layered chain of command, and the troops must absolutely obey the command of their officers. However, the sergeant is also a mortal and therefore he may make some disastrous mistakes that put the whole army in a disadvantage. In the hierarchical management system, how can a soldier directly overstep their sergeant and report the issue to the higher-ranking commanders? Jocko believes that "overstepping" is a very, very serious problem. It will not only break the chain of command and trust, but will also damage the relationship you have been building, causing irreparable harm. He believes that if the sergeant has made some "illegal or unethical" behaviors or decisions, "the overstepped reporting" should be your last resort. Therefore, he suggests that you should first talk to your sergeant with confidence and sincerity, present your opinions in a non-threatening manner and emphasize "we" rather than "me". It is vital that you don't make yourself a person who can go beyond the sergeant. If the conversation doesn't work, then you have the responsibility of "the overstepped reporting". Jocko added: doing things according to the rules is definitely your most important principle. It can prevent you from any condemnation since the rules are like this. When the sergeant breaks the rules and causes problems, you can give advice from a neutral perspective and avoid unnecessary troubles.    

美國海軍如何對付失眠? How does US Soldiers treat insomnia?

我們都知道睡眠是十分重要,但是很少人真正懂得「睡眠」。生活在城市的你,就如在戰場上,無時無刻都面對到著各種的壓力,日夜顛倒。即使身心疲累,亦不一定能安心睡一個好覺。你有沒有想過在槍林彈雨的戰場上,士兵又如何能夠在生死關頭之中睡一個好覺?秘訣就在於他們有一套有系統的睡覺方法。這套方法或許能令你即使在生死關頭之下,亦能像戰士般安枕無憂。  在第二次世界大戰期間,由於戰場上的壓力,部分美國戰鬥機飛行員因此造成嚴重的失眠,並做出了許多可怕的、原本可以避免的錯誤決定。即使飛行員打卡休息(一種睡眠卡,裏面存的是能睡眠的時間),他們也無法放鬆,無法入睡。因此他們的壓力和疲勞越積越多,最後犯了一些致命的錯誤。因此,美國海軍研發了一套科學的方法﹕簡單的4個步驟就能讓你在任何情況下,在兩分鐘內就能在任何時間﹑任何地方入睡。經過訓練後,96% 的飛行員能在兩分鐘甚至更短的時間內入睡。   睡眠的方法如下: 放鬆臉部肌肉,包括舌頭,下巴和眼睛周圍的肌肉 將你的肩膀盡可能向外伸展,然後是你的上臂和下臂,一次一側 慢慢呼氣,隨著大腿慢慢放鬆直至胸部,然後放鬆雙腿 花10秒鐘放空你的想法,並慢慢想像下列其中一個畫面: 你正躺在一個在平靜湖面的獨木舟上,只有一片清澈的藍天 你躺在一間漆黑房間裡的黑色天鵝絨吊床上 你說“不思考,不思考,不思考”一遍又一遍,持續大約10秒鐘 We all know that sleep is very important, but few really understand "sleep".  Living in the city, just like on the battlefield, you face all kinds of pressure all the time. Even if you are physically and mentally tired, you may not be able to sleep well. Have you ever thought about how a soldier can sleep well on the battlefield where is full of danger and fear? The secret is that they have a systematic method of sleeping? During the Second World War, due to pressure on the battlefield, some American fighter pilots caused severe insomnia and made many horrible mistakes that could have been avoided easily. Even if the pilot checked the card (a kind of sleep card, there is a time to sleep), they could not relax and fell asleep. Their pressure and fatigue accumulate and finally make fatal mistakes. Therefore, the US Navy developed a scientific method (simple 4 steps) which allows the pilots to fall asleep during the day or night in less than two minutes. After training, 96% of pilots can fall asleep in two minutes or less.   The Sleep Method as follows: Relax the muscles in your face, including tongue, jaw and the muscles around the eyes Drop your shoulders as far down as they’ll go, followed by your upper and lower arm, one side at a time Breathe out, relaxing your chest followed by your legs, starting from the thighs and working down You should then spend 10 seconds trying to clear your mind before thinking about one of the three following images: You’re lying in a canoe on a calm lake with nothing but a clear blue sky above you You’re lying in a black velvet hammock in a pitch-black room You say “don’t think, don’t think, don’t think” to yourself over and over for about 10 seconds.