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在職場上,你或會曾經發現你的上級犯了一些嚴重的錯誤,而你卻不知如何處理或上諫? 美國海軍海豹部隊退伍的指揮官 Jocko Willink的建議,可能會為你提供一些有用的建議。為了保持整體有效的管治和軍紀,軍隊會設立層層式的指揮鏈,而部隊須絕對順從其長官的指令。不過,長官亦是凡人,有時或會發出有一些致命的錯誤指令,令整體軍隊陷於不利之中。在一層一層的分階管理中,軍人又如何直接越過其直屬上司,向更高層的長官報告進而解決問題呢?

Jocko 認為「越級上諫」是非常非常嚴重的問題,它不但打破了指揮鏈和信任,更會破壞你一直以來建立的關係,造成無法彌補的傷害。他認為,若長官作出了一些「違法或不道德」的行為或決定,「越級上諫」應是你最後的手段。因此,他建議你應先自信及誠懇地與你的長官直接對話,以一種非威脅的方式提出意見,並強調「我們」而非「我」。至關重要的是,你不要讓自己成為一個能夠超越長官的人。如果對話不起作用,那麼你就有「責任」越過你的長官並與他們的上級交談了。

Jocko補充: 照著規矩來做事絕對是你最重要的原則。它可以保護你免於任何的譴責,畢竟規定就是這樣。在長官破壞了規矩而造成問題時,你既可以站在中立的角度給予建議,亦能避免ㄧ些不必要的麻煩。


In the workplace, you may have found that your superior has made some serious mistakes, but you do not know how to deal with or report. Jocko Willink, the fromer commander of the US Navy's SEAL, may provide you some useful advices. In order to maintain overall effective governance and discipline, the military will establish a layered chain of command, and the troops must absolutely obey the command of their officers. However, the sergeant is also a mortal and therefore he may make some disastrous mistakes that put the whole army in a disadvantage. In the hierarchical management system, how can a soldier directly overstep their sergeant and report the issue to the higher-ranking commanders?

Jocko believes that "overstepping" is a very, very serious problem. It will not only break the chain of command and trust, but will also damage the relationship you have been building, causing irreparable harm. He believes that if the sergeant has made some "illegal or unethical" behaviors or decisions, "the overstepped reporting" should be your last resort. Therefore, he suggests that you should first talk to your sergeant with confidence and sincerity, present your opinions in a non-threatening manner and emphasize "we" rather than "me". It is vital that you don't make yourself a person who can go beyond the sergeant. If the conversation doesn't work, then you have the responsibility of "the overstepped reporting".

Jocko added: doing things according to the rules is definitely your most important principle. It can prevent you from any condemnation since the rules are like this. When the sergeant breaks the rules and causes problems, you can give advice from a neutral perspective and avoid unnecessary troubles.